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SDG 14 : National Marine Conservation In Indonesia Between Quality and Quantity




Indonesia is known as a nation that has largest archipelago in the world which consists of more than 17,000 islands. Indonesia is also known as the center of the coral triangle[1]. Indonesian marine diversity is the highest in the world. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is a strategy that has taken in Indonesia to protect those Biodiversity that suppose benefiting the coastal communities which their livelihood mostly depending on the coastal and marine resources[2].

Oceans play an important role in people well-being and social and economic development globally. However, if the marine and coastal areas not sustainably managed, the activities surround could damage the areas[3]. That is why MPAs are needed as its concern is the marine and coastal resources health where the coastal communities depend on it as their livelihoods[4].

National Marine Conservation in Indonesia is managed by zoning system which comprises of 4 zones (Core zone, sustainable fishing zone, utilization zone and other zone). Core zone was no take area, just for Education, research, monitoring. Sustainable fishing zones are including sustainable fishing general, sustainable fishing traditional and cetacean protection zone. Utilization zone was priority for marine eco-tourism. The other zones are includes local wisdom zones, tourism and aquaculture. It was accordance with the regulation of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) decree No. 30 / KEPMEN-KP / 2010 concerning Management and Zoning Plan of Conservation Area. These zones should be managed effectively to enhance the MPAs positive impacts[5].

In terms of the management effectiveness of the MPAS, Indonesia has level indicator that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the management in MPAs by measuring the positive impact of the MPAs on biophysical resources, and the socio-economic and cultural of the coastal communities. The level is as shown in the table below.


Table 1. Criteria for evaluating the MPA’s management effectiveness

                                                                                                                                                            Source. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Website.


Table 1 shows the level of the MPAs effective management sequentially from 1 to 5 are initiated, established, managed minimally, managed optimally and fully functional (self-reliant).

Beside the MPAs management, Indonesia also has target to achieve the large of MPAs in 2020. This target is linked with SDGs Goal 14 in 2030 which is “Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development”[6]. The SDGs 14.5 targets by 2020 is conserving the minimum 10 per cent of the coastal and marine areas which is for Indonesia will be 20 million hectares as the 10 per cent of the marine and coastal areas. The tables below are the data about the Marine Conservation Areas in Indonesia between 2012 and 2017.


Table 2. The Size of MPAs in Indonesia 2012

                                                                                                                                     Source. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Website.

From the table 2 can be seen that in 2012 Indonesia had covered a total of 15.78 million hectares of Marine Protected Areas that initiated by two main organizations which are Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and Ministry of Forestry. While the target for 2010-2014 is 15.5 million, it is mean that the MPAs had exceed the target[7].


Table 3. The Size of MPAs in Indonesia 2017

                                                                                                                                                 Source. Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Website.


It can be seen from the table 3 above that in 2017 Indonesia has reached 19.14 million hectares of MPAs which almost reach the target 20 million hectares in 2020. It is clear that in terms of the quantity of the MPAs, Indonesia would be success to reach the target. The question is about the MPAs quality which is the MPAs management effectiveness.

In one hand, Indonesia has achieved the target of the large of the MPAs, but in the other hand, Indonesia still has a lot of work to manage the MPAs effectively. However, the challenges for Indonesia is weather just enlarging the MPAs or maximizing the impact of the MPAs. Indonesia should ensuring the quality and quantity of the MPAs. The marine conservation should be not just targeting the proportion of the MPAs but also to manage them to give the maximum contribution for sustainability and also help the stakeholder to gain income from them. The development of the MPAs should achieve functional protection of marine resources and also provide social-economic benefits for coastal communities[8].



[1] United Nation, 2017

[2] FAO, 2017

[3] SDGs, 2017

[4] Mangora et al, 2015

[5] MMAF website

[6] SDGs, 2017

[7] MMAF website

[8] Colorado State University, 2018

Balai Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Nasional Kupang   25 April 2022   Dilihat : 196

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